English Material

E-learning in ELT Lab



Listening Skills:

Hearing and Listening – Importance of listening – Listening situations – Barriers to Listening – Developing Listening Skills.

Listening Skills
Listening:
 Listening is a process of receiving and interpreting the spoken word. It involves recognizing what is said and comprehending the matter that, understands the main and subsidiary points as well as the links between the different parts of speech.
The four stages of listening are
·         Sensing  - the listener hears sounds and does focus on them
·         Encoding – the listener decodes or interprets the message
·         Evaluation – the listener evaluates the message
·         Response – the listener responds
  

 Differences between Listening and Hearing:
Listening
Hearing
Voluntary
Involuntary
Requires conscious efforts
Happens automatically
Active process
Passive process
The listener plays a very active part
The listener plays a passive part
A two-way interactive process engaging the speaker and the listener
A one-way process
Types of Listening:
Types
characteristics
Superficial listening
The listener has little awareness of the content of the verbal message.
Appreciative listening
The purpose of listening is to derive pleasure. Eg: a music lover may listen to the latest hit, pick up the chorus and tune and try to sing along
Focused listening
The purpose is to get some specific information. Eg: listening to radio, listening to railway and airport announcements
Evaluative listening
The purpose is to evaluate the oral message, commentary and develop a line of thought. Eg: classroom lectures, workshops, seminars etc
Attentive listening
It is interactive and productive, facilitating proper interaction and more effective listener-speaker relationships. Eg: formal conversational interactions, suggestions, important telephone calls
Empathetic  Listening
It involves listening to the speaker’s feelings, emotions and state of mind. 
Importance of Listening:
Listening plays an important role in our social as well as professional life.
Listening is crucial in certain professions.
Successful businessmen and the apex management of reputed companies consider listening as an important skill
All successful industrialists, advocates, teachers, doctors etc are good listeners
Effective listening is the hallmark of a successful professional.
Listening Situations:
 ·         Conversations with friends and relatives
·         Interactions with professionals such as traders, doctors, bank officials etc
·         Listening to professional situations like meetings, seminars, briefings, oral presentations etc.
Uses of Listening:
·         helps in the cultivation of smooth interpersonal relationships with fellow workers
·         for proper decision making
·         discover the speaker’s ideas during a conversation
·         obtain specific information
·         seek evidence for one’s own points of view
Barriers to Listening:
Barriers to listening could be physical, psychological, linguistic or cultural
            Physical Barriers: 
·         Noise
·         Physical discomfort
·         Physical distractions
·         Distance
Psychological Barriers:
·         Emotional disturbance
·         Over arousal of emotions
Linguistic Barriers:
·         Improper message decoding
·         Ambiguous (confusing, unclear) language
·         Jargon ( words difficult to understand)
        Cultural Barriers:
·         Cultural indifferences
·         Different values
·         Different social norms
Developing Listening Skills:
·         Familiarize yourself with the sound system of English
To comprehend fully, it is essential to recognize the difference between a stressed word and an unstressed word, intonation and pause.
·         Focus on Your Purpose
To gain knowledge, to understand concepts, and to learn the procedure or process of doing things or to listen instructions listening should be done with utmost patience and sympathy, encouraging the speaker to pour out his heart.
·         Have a Positive Attitude towards the Speaker and the Topic
 Prevent yourself from paying attention to the dress and physical features of the speaker, they hinder the process of listening and the time spent on it may be an utter waste.
·         Listen with your Eyes as well as ears
The non-verbal clues such as the twinkle in the eyes, the flourish of hands, shrugging of shoulders, the movement on podium, the facial expression tec also convey meaning besides reflecting the speaker’s attitude towards the topic and audience.
·         Avoid Premature Evaluation
Sometimes the points discussed at the initial stage appear to be irrelevant but later they are connected with the theme or the central thought.
·         Resist Distractions
The average speed of speaking is about 150words per minute and that of listening about 650 words per minute. There are two main sources of distraction.  One, the speaker himself may distract the listeners by odd body movements, unpleasant facial expressions etc. Second distraction may be caused by an external force like gaudy dress, strong perfume etc. discipline your mind to ignore the disturbances.
·         Take notes:
In a lecture, seminar presentation or a briefing session a speaker usually makes a few basic points. While listening identify and make notes of the specific points.
Ten Thumb Rules for Good Listening
·         Talking
·         Thinking
·         Distractions
·         Mind wandering
·         Putting the speaker at ease
·         Pre-judgment
·         Patience
·         Being angry
·         Empathizing with the speaker
·         Taking notes.
Communication Skills
Communication is the process involving the transmission and reception of symbols eliciting meaning in the minds of the participants.
Communication is an interactive process. The two communication agents involved in the communication process are the sender(s) and the receiver(R).
ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATON:
There are seven elements of communication:
       Source idea (source)
          Message
Encoding
Channel
Receiver
Decoding
Feedback
1.   Source Idea: It is the process by which one formulates an idea to communicate to another party. This process can be influenced by external stimuli such as books or radio, or it can come about internally by thinking about a particular subject.
2.  Message:  It is about what will be communicated to another party. It is based on the source idea. Eg: if the message is between two friends, the message will take different form than if communicating with a superior.
3.  Encoding:  this is how the message is transmitted to another party. Eg: the message will take a different form if the communication will be spoken or written.
4.  The Channel: it is the medium of the communication. The channel must be able to transmit the message from one party to another without changing the content of the message. The channel can be a piece of paper, a communication medium such as radio.
5.  Receiver: the receiver is the party receiving the communication. The party uses the channel to get the communication from the transmitter. A receiver can be a television set, a computer, or a piece of paper.
6.  Decoding:  it is the process where the message is interpreted for its content. The receiver thinks about the message’s content and internalizes the message.
7.  Feed back:  this is the final step in the communication process. Feedback makes it possible for speakers to judge how well they are communicating.
Communication forms:
Form
Examples
Interpersonal, face to face communication
Casual conversations, formal interactions, student to student negotiations, job interviews
Group Communication
Meetings, conferences, group discussions, panel discussions
Speaker audience communication
Speeches, debates, seminars, workshops, oral presentations
Telephonic communication
Personal interactions, business deals, telephone interviews
Written communication
Reports, proposals, memos, letters, e-mails.
Channels of Communication:
1.  Downward Communication:  It consists of the flow of information from the top level of an organization to the workers via senior managers, supervisors and their assistants.
Eg: General manager to Branch manager (notices, memos, e-mails etc)
2.  Upward Communication: Upward communication involves movement of information from the lower level of an organization to its upper level through different tiers of its hierarchical structure.
Eg:  Branch manager to Managing Director (Suggestion box, business proposals etc)

3.  Horizontal Communication: Horizontal or lateral communication refers to communication among everyone who is of the same rank in a hierarchy, or at the same level in an organization.
Eg:  Between professional peer groups ( team work, group coordination etc..)
4.  Diagonal Communication: Diagonal or Grapevine communication is an informal form of communication that exists in communities and also, without official sanction, at the work place.
Eg:  Flows in all directions.
Differences:
General Communication
Technical Communication
General content
Technical content
General vocabulary
Specialized formal vocabulary
Formal and informal
Always formal
May not b e factual
Always factual
Both objective& Subjective
Objective
Not always for specific audience
Specific audience
Barriers to Effective Communication:
·          Language differences
·         Information overload
·         Physical distractions
·         Psychological and emotional interference
·         Cultural differences
·         Different perceptions of reality
·         Semantic difficulties
·         Misinterpretation of the message
·         Time pressure
·         Poor retention



COMMUNICATION  AND SOFT SKILLS
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SEMESTER- I
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ANDHRA LOYOLA COLLEGE (AUTONOMOUS):: VIJAYAWADA
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH
COMMUNICATION AND SOFT SKILLS SYLLABUS
SEMESTER  - I : FUNDAMENTALS OF COMMUNICATION SKILLS
UNIT- I  Communication Skills
Definition, Process, Types, Barriers
UNIT – II Oral Communication
English Sounds, Letters & Words
UNIT – III Listening Skills
Types of Listening, Barriers to Effective Listening & Traits of a Good Listener
UNIT – IV Stress & Intonation
Word stress, Sentence Stress, Intonation Patterns
UNIT – V  Word Building
English & Latin Affixes and Suffixes, One word Substitutes.
UNIT – I
PHONEMIC TRANSCRIPTION
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UNIT – II
PREFIXES &SUFFIXES
PREFIXES (AFFIXES)
 A Prefix is a sound or group of letters which are added to the beginning of a word to make a new word.
Eg: mis +take
          Some common prefixes are ‘mis’, ‘dis’, ‘re’, ‘for’, ‘anti’, ‘ante’, ‘sub’, ‘un’ and ‘in’. New words are made by placing a prefix in front of a word. It is helpful to know the meanings of prefixes.
 Common Prefix meanings:
Pre
before
Mis
Bad(ly)
Sub
Under
Inter
Between
Semi
Half
Re
Again

The following prefixes of ‘im’, ‘ir’, ‘in’ and ‘un’ can be added to the beginning of words to make them into a negative
EXAMPLES:
Im+possible = impossible
Ir+ responsible = irresponsible
Il+legal = illegal
In + active= inactive
Un + happy = unhappy
PREFIX
MEANING
EXAMPLE
Dis-
Not, opposite
Disagree
In-, im-
into
Insert, inside, import
Mis-
Incorrectly
Misunderstand, misfire, mistake
Re-, pro-, anti-, counter-
Again and against
Return, rediscover, reunite, proclaim, counter-act, antidote
Un-
Not
Uninteresting
Under-, over-, extra-, out-
Below,lower, not enough, too much/ little& more
Underwater, over enthusiastic, outrageous, extra doses
Com-, con-
With, alongside
Comprise, connote
De-
Off, down, away from
Devalue, defrost, derail, demotivate
Ex-
Former, out of
Ex-partner, ex-president
a-
Not,without
Amoral
Homo-
Same
Homograph,homophone
Magn-
Great
Magnate
Para-
Beside
Paragraph, paramedical, paradox
Sub-
Under
Submarine, sub merge
Trans-
Across
Transparent, transport
Tri-
Three
Triangle, tripod, tricycle
Uni-
One
Universal, unilateral
Therm-
Heat
Thermometer, thermodynamics
Super-
Above, over
Superfood, superstar,supernatural
Semi-, half-, mid-
Half, partly and middle
semi-final, half-way, mid-night
Pre-
Before
Prefix, predetermine
Post-
After
Post-mortem, postpone
Omni-
All,every
Omnibus, omnivore, omnipotent
Non-
Not,without
Nonsense, nondescript
Mono-
One, singular
Monotone, monolithic
Bio-
Two
Biology, biodiversity
Micro-
Small
Microscope, microbiology
Macro-
Large
Macroeconomics, macromolecule
Inter-, intra-
Between
Interact, intracellular
Infra-
Beneath, below
Infrastructure, infrared
Im-, il-, in-, ir-
Not
Impossible, illegal, irresponsible, inconvenient
Hyper-
Over, above
Hyperactive, hyperventilate
Fore-
Before
Forecast, forehead, foresee
Extra-
Beyond, more than
Extracurricular, extraordinary
Epi-
Upon, close to, after
Epicenter, epidermis
Co-
With
Co-worker, co-pilot, co-operation
Circum-
Around
Circumstance, circumvent
Mal-
Badly
Malpractice, malnutrition
Ante-
Before
Anteroom, antenatal, antedate
EXERCISE :
Complete the sentences by writing the correct prefix in the blank space. You can use a dictionary to help you.
Dis-            in-               mis-            re-              un-             under-
1.    I just can’t believe it! The story is ____________ believable!
2.    No, that answer is ____________ correct. It is wrong.
3.    Let’s look at this information again. We should _______ view it before the test.
4.    I saw Allison just a moment ago, but now I can’t find her! It seems that she ______ appeared!
5.    Oh, I’m sorry, I didn’t hear you correctly. I _______ understood you.
6.    The subway does not go over the land like a normal train. It moves ______ ground.
SUFFIXES:
A sound or groups of letters added to the end of a main word are called Suffixes. Common suffixes are ‘ed’, ‘ful’, ‘ly’, ‘ing’, ‘able’, ‘ance’, ‘ence’, ‘ness’.
 A suffix is a letter or a group of letters that is usually attached to the end of a  word to form a new word, as well as alter the way it functions grammatically.
Depending on whether it is a noun, verb, adjective or adverb, a different suffix would be required. For example, the verb read can be altered to become the noun reader by adding the suffix –er. The same verb can also be turned into the adjective readable by adding the suffix –able.
Eg:  harm+less= harmless
 When ‘full’ is added to a word you drop the final ‘l’.  if you add ‘ly’  to any word ending with ‘ful’  you keep the existing ‘l’.
Eg:
Hand+ful= handful
Rest+ful =restful
Restful +ly= restfully
SUFFIX
MEANING
EXAMPLE
NOUN SUFFIXES:
-acy
State or quality
Democracy, autocracy
-al
The action or process of
Remedial, denial
-ance, -ence
State or quality of
Nuisance, ambience
-dom
Place or state of being
Freedom, boredom
-er, -or
person or object that does a specified action
Reader, creator
-ism
Doctrine, belief
Judaism, altruisim
-         Ist
Person or object that does a specified action
Geologist, activist
-         Ity, -ty
Quality of
Extremity,acidity
-ment
Condition
Enchantment, department
-ness
State of being
Heaviness, highness
-ship
Position held
Friendship, hardship
-sion, -tion
State of being
Position, concession
VERB SUFFIXES
-ate
Become
Mediate, abbreviate, affiliate
-en
Become
Sharpen, strengthen, forbidden
-ify, -fy
Make or become
Justify, simplify, qualify
-ise, ize
Become
Agonize, capitalize, franchise
ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES
-able, -ible
Capable of being
Edible, capable, accountable
-al
Having the form or character of
Physical, thermal
-esque
In a manner of or resembling
Picturesque, brusque
-ful
Notable for
Handful, playful
-ic, ical
Having the form or charcter of
Psychological, magical, academic, abiotic
-ious, -ous
Characterized by
Pious, jealous
-ish
Having the quality of
abolish, accomplish,admonish, anguish
-         ive
Having the nature of
Inquisitive, informative
-less
Without
Meaningless, hopeless, fearless
-y
Characterized by
Beauty, duty, quality
ADVERB SUFFIXES
-ly
Related to or quality
softly, slowly, beautifully
-ward, -wards
Direction
Towards, afterwards
-wise
In relation to
Otherwise, like wise
EXERCISE:
Complete the sentences by writing the correct suffix in the blank space. You can use a dictionary to help you.
1.    He was acting in a very _________ way. (child)
2.    He passed his exam. He was ___________ for the second time. (succeed)
3.    The team that he supported was able to win the __________. ( champion)
4.    I couldn’t find any _____________ in his theory. ( weak)
5.    There were only a_____________ of people at the match. (hand)
6.    The road was too narrow, so they had ___________ it. (wide)
7.    You need a _____________ of motivation, organization and hard work to realize your dreams. (combine)
ONE-WORD SUBSTITUTES:
1.
Sleep enjoyed in the afternoon
Siesta
2.
One who prepares plans for buildings
Architect
3.
A person who talks too much
Garrulous
4.
A person in charge of a museum
Curator
5.
One who eats too much
Glutton
6.
A life history written by oneself
Autobiography
7.
A life history written by somebody else
Biography
8.
 A person’s peculiar habit
Idiosyncrasy
9.
A member of the middle class
Bourgeois
10.
A land animal that breeds in water
Amphibian
11.
A post held without receiving salary
Honorary
12.
Study of man
Anthropology
13.
Absence of government
Anarchy
14.
One who speaks less
reticent
15.
One who questions everything
cynic
16.
Water fit or drinking
Potable
17.
One who is completely self-satisfied
Complacent
18.
Which can be interpreted in two ways
Ambiguous
19.
Which cannot be satisfied
Insatiable
20.
A statement that seems contradictory but is true
Paradox
UNIT – III
ACCENT, STRESS AND INTONATION
ACCENT
 The word ‘accent’ refers to the way or the style in which people in particular area or country pronounce words and speak their language. In simple words, accent can be understood as a speaking style. Every language is spoken in particular style or styles. Those speaking styles or accents are very rich with their own musical patterns or rhythmic patterns. English is no exception for such patterns. In other words, there are four important accentual and rhythmic aspects. They are
Stress
Pitch    
Time and
Pronunciation  quality.
 To understand these two crucial aspects, we need to know the speech unit called syllable.
SYLLABLE:
A unit of pronunciation having one vowel sound with or without consonants is called a syllable. Or a syllable is the unit of vowel sound.
MONOSYLLABLE:  If a word contains mono syllable (one vowel sound) it is called mono syllable word.
 Eg:  boy, fan, go etc.
DISYLLABLE:  If a word contains two syllables (two vowel sounds) then it is called Disyllable word.
Eg:  action, answer, about, decide, behave, again, today etc.
TRISYLLABLE:  If a word contains three syllables (three vowel sounds) then it is called Trisyllabic word.
Eg:  beautiful, confident, difficult, holidays, attention, behavior, connection, disappear etc.
POLY OR TETRA SYLLABLE:  If a word contains more than three syllables (more than three vowels) then it is called Poly or Tetra syllabic word.
Eg: Capitalize, commentary, intelligence, particular, accommodation, examination, Independent etc.
STRESS:
In linguists, Stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in  a word, or to a certain words and phrases in a certain.
The pronunciation of a word consists of at least one syllable, if a word in English consists of more than one syllable, one syllable will sound more prominent than any other. The greater prominence is what is called Stress  (’)
Primary Stress:  main stress or accent
Secondary Stress:  unreduced and not accented
Tertiary Stress:  reduced or unstressed
RULES:
1.    Disyllabic words with weak prefixes like a, be and re are accented on the root.
a’ rise                            be’low                 re’tire
2.    Verbs with two syllables beginning with the prefix  dis –are stressed on the last syllable.
Dis’may              dis’grace              dis’close
3.    Some verbs with two syllables ending in – ate, -ise, ize and ct are stressed on the last syllable.
Nar’rate               chas’tise              de’ pict
4.    Words ending in the suffix –ion have the stress on the penultimate(last but one) syllable.
Culti’vation                  infor’mation                 ‘mansion
5.    Some words ending in –ity  have the accent on the third syllable from the end.
A’bility               e’quality              gene’rosity
6.    Some words ending in the suffixes –ic, -ical, -ically, -ial, ially, -ian have the accent on the syllable before the suffix.
Scien’tific           apolo’getically   elec’trician
7.    Words ending in – ious, -eous  have the stress on the syllable preceeding the suffix.
‘anxious              ‘piteous               ‘gorgeous
8.    When a compound word conveys a meaning entirely different from that of its individual components, it is the first element that is stressed.
‘blacksmith                  ‘blackbird           ‘white boat
9.    Words ending in –self, -selves have primary accent on the suffix itself.
          My’self               him’self               our’selves
10.                       Stress in disyllabic words may change depending upon the function,i.e whether the word is used as a noun/adjective or as a verb. When used as a noun/adjective, the word carries a stress on the first syllable, whereas the stress is shifted to the second syllable when the word is used as a verb.
Noun/ Adjectives
Verbs
‘absent
Ab’sent
‘conflict
Con’flict
‘convert
Con’vert
‘extract
Ex’tract
‘import
Im’port
INTONATION:
The pitch or volume movement on spoken syllables in an utterance is called Intonation.  It is a pattern of pitch or volume movements. With regard to English, there are many pitch movements. Yet, there are three pitch movements necessary to learn at this movement.
1.    FALLING TONE OR FALLING PITCH:
Pitch moving from high volume to low volume is called Falling Pitch. It is marked as (\)
Commands and demands are said in falling tone.
/what is your/basic/ qualify/cation?
/My/ basic qualify/ cation is B./ Tech
2.    RISING TONE OR RISING PITCH:
Pitch moving from low volume to high volume is called Rising Pitch. It is marked as ( / )
Requests and polite enquiries are said in rising tone.
What is your name?
 Sa /Leema
/Are you a fresher?
Yes. I / am.
3.    FALLING AND RISING PITCH OR FALLING AND RISING TONE:
 Pitch moving from high volume to low volume initially and low volume to high volume finally is called Falling and Rising tone.
It is used while addressing a person by his or her name or by the expressions like hello, excuse me etc. (tone is shown or marked as (v)
  Excuse me! / Is this the / fee counter?
/Yes. This/ is.
http://site.ge-energy.com/businesses/ge_oilandgas/en/newsletter/geog_viewsandnews_103012/images/cf-quotes-3.jpgSTRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE VERBAL COMMUNICATION:
                ·         Focus on the issue, not the person
·         Be genuine rather than manipulative
·         Empathize rather than remain detached
·         Be flexible towards others
·         Value yourself and your own experiences
·         Present yourself as an equal rather than a superior
·         Use affirming responses.